Fylkesvei 664 (Hedmark)

Fylkesvei 664 (Fv664) i Hedmark går mellom Hanestad stasjon og Øvre Rendal kirke i Rendalen kommune. Veien er 17,5 km lang.



Erstattet av riksvei 3 rundt 120 m

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Wat Phra Kaew

Wat Phra Kaew (Thai: วัดพระแก้ว, rtgs: Wat Phra Kaeo, IPA: [wát pʰráʔ kɛ̂ːw], , English: Temple of the Emerald Buddha; full official name Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram, Thai: วัดพระศรีรัตนศาสดาราม, IPA: [wát pʰráʔ sǐː rát.ta.náʔ sàːt.sa.daː.raːm]) is regarded as the most sacred Buddhist temple (wat) in Thailand. The Emerald Buddha housed in the temple is a potent religio-political symbol and the palladium (protective image) of Thai society. It is located in Phra Nakhon District, the historic centre of Bangkok, within the precincts of the Grand Palace.

The main building is the central phra ubosot, which houses the statue of the Emerald Buddha. According to legend, this Buddha image originated in India where the sage Nagasena prophesized that the Emerald Buddha would bring „prosperity and pre-eminence to each country in which it resides“, the Emerald Buddha deified in the Wat Phra Kaew is therefore deeply revered and venerated in Thailand as the protector of the country. Historical records however dates its finding to Chiang Rai in the 15th century where, after it was relocated a number of times, it was finally taken to Thailand in the 18th century. It was enshrined in Bangkok at the Wat Phra Kaew temple in 1782 during the reign of Phutthayotfa Chulalok, King Rama I (1782–1809). This marked the beginning of the Chakri Dynasty of Thailand, whose present sovereign is Bhumibol Adulyadej, King Rama IX.

The Emerald Buddha, a dark green statue, is in a standing form, about 66 centimetres (26 in) tall, carved from a single jade stone („emerald“ in Thai means deep green colour and not the specific stone). It is carved in the meditating posture in the style of the Lanna school of the northern Thailand. Except for the Thai King and, in his stead, the Crown Prince, no other persons are allowed to touch the statue. The King changes the cloak around the statue three times a year, corresponding to the summer, winter, and rainy seasons, an important ritual performed to usher good fortune to the country during each season.

In 1767, the Kingdom of Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese, and King Taksin then moved the capital to Thonburi where he built the old palace beside Wat Arun on the west bank of Chao Phraya River. In 1778, Taksin’s army under the command of Chao Phraya Chakri (who later became Rama I) captured Vientiane and took the Emerald Buddha back to Thonburi.

In 1782, King Rama I succeeded to the throne and founded the Chakri Dynasty, and he decided to move the capital across the river to Bangkok as it would be better protected from attack. The site chosen for the palace is situated between two old wats, Wat Pho and Wat Mahathat, an area inhabited by Chinese residents who were then moved to the present Chinatown. He started the construction of the Grand Palace so that the palace may be ready for his coronation in 1785. Wat Phra Kaew, which has its own compound within the precinct of the palace, was built to house the Emerald Buddha, which is considered a sacred object that provides protection for the kingdom. Wat Phra Kaew was completed in 1784. The formal name of Wat Phra Kaeo is Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram, which means „the residence of the Holy Jewel Buddha.“

Wat Phra Kaew has undergone a number of renovations, restoration and additions in its history, particularly during the reign of King Rama III and Rama IV. Rama III started the renovations and rebuilding in 1831 for the 50th Anniversary of BangkoK of 1832, while Rama IV’s restoration was completed by Rama V in time for the Bangkok Centennial celebrations in 1882. Further restoration was undertaken by Rama VII on Bangkok’s 150th Anniversary in 1932, and by Rama IX for the 200th Anniversary in 1982.

It is not known when the statue of the Emerald Buddha was made, but it is generally believed that it was crafted in 14th-century Thailand. However, there are also claims that the statue originated in India or Sri Lanka. None of these theories can be firmly established as none of the historians could get a close look at the statue.

According to one account, the Emerald Buddha was found in Chiang Rai, Lanna in 1434, after a lightning storm struck a temple. The Buddha statue fell down and later became chipped, and the monks, after removing the stucco around the statue, discovered that the image was a perfectly made Buddha image from a solid piece of green jade. The image was moved a few time to various temples, first to Lampang, then to Chiang Mai, from where it was removed by prince Chao Chaiyasetthathirat to Luang Prabang, when his father died and he ascended the throne of both Lanna and Lan Xang, in 1551. The statue remained the it to his new capital of Lan Xang in Vientiane in the 1560s. The statue remained there for twelve years. King Chaiyasetthathirat then shifted it to his new capital of Lan Xang in Vientiane in the 1560s. He took the Emerald Buddha with him and the image remained in Vientiane for 214 years until 1778.

In the reign of King Taksin, Chao Phya Chakri (who later became Rama I) defeated Vientiane and moved the Emerald Buddha from Vientiane to Thonburi where it was installed in a shrine close to Wat Arun. When Chao Phra Chakri took over the throne and founded the Chakri Dynasty of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, he shifted his capital across the river to its present location in Bangkok. The Emerald Buddha was also moved across the river with pomp and pageantry and installed in the temple of Wat Phra Keaw.

There a number of legends associated with the Emerald Buddha. It was said the iconic image of the Emerald Buddha was made by Nagasena, a saint in Pataliputra (present day Patna), India, who, with the help of Hindu god Vishnu and demigod Indra, had the Emerald Buddha image made. Nagasena predicted that:

The image of the Buddha is assuredly going to give to religion the most brilliant importance in five lands, that is in Lankadvipa (Sri Lanka), Ramalakka, Dvaravati, Chieng Mai and Lan Chang (Laos).

The Emerald Buddha image was taken to Sri Lanka after three hundred years in Pataliputra to save it during a civil war. In 457, King Anuruth of Burma sent a mission to Ceylon with a request for Buddhist scriptures and the Emerald Buddha, in order to promote Buddhism in his country. These requests were granted, but the ship lost its way in a storm during the return voyage and landed in Cambodia. When the Thais captured Angkor Wat in 1432 (following the ravage of the bubonic plague), the Emerald Buddha was taken to Ayutthaya, Kamphaeng Phet, Laos and finally Chiang Rai, where the ruler of the city hid it, and was later found.

Wat Phra Kaeo has a plethora of buildings within the precincts of the Grand Palace, which covers a total area of over 94.5 hectares (234 acres). It has over 100 buildings with “200 years royal history and architectural experimentation” linked to it. The architectural style is named as Rattanakosin style (old Bangkok style). The main temple of the Emerald Buddha is very elegantly decorated and similar to the temple in ancient capital of Ayudhya. The roof is embellished with polished orange and green tiles, the pillars are inlaid in mosaic and the pediments are made of rich marble, installed around 18th century. The Emerald Buddha is deified over an elevated altar surrounded by large gilded decorations. While the upper part of this altar was part of the original construction, the base was added by King Rama III. Two images of the Buddha, which represent the first two kings of the Chakri dynasty, flank the main image. Over the years, the temple has retained its original design. However, minor improvements have been effected after its first erection during Rama I’s reign; wood-work of the temple was replaced by King Rama III and King Chulalongkorn; during King Mongkut’s reign, the elegant doors and windows and the copper plates on the floor were additions, Rama III refurbished the wall painting (indicative of the universe according to Buddhist cosmology) and several frescoes that display the various stages of the Buddha’s life; three chambers were added on the western side by King Mongkut; in the chamber known as ‚Phra Kromanusorn‘ at the northern end, images of Buddha have been installed in honour of the kings of Ayutthaya; and in the 19th century, In Khong, a famous painter executed the wall murals. The entry to the temple is from the third gate from the river pier.

The entrance is guarded by a pair of yakshis (mythical giants – 5 metres (16 ft) high statues). The eponymous image Buddha in brilliant green colour is 66 centimetres (26 in) in height with a lap width of 48.3 centimetres (19.0 in). It is carved in a yogic position, known as Virasana (a meditation pose commonly seen in images in Thailand and also in South India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia). The pedestal on which the Emerald Buddha deified is decorated with Garuda (the mythical half-man half-bird form, a steed of Rama, who holds his mortal enemy Naga the serpent in his legs) motifs It is central to Thai Buddhism. The image made with a circular base has a smooth top-knot that is finished with a „dulled point marking at the top of the image“. A third eye made in gold is inset over the elevated eyebrows of the image. The image appears divine and composed, with the eyes cast downward. The image has a small nose and mouth (mouth closed) and elongated ears. The hands are seen on the lap with palms facing upwards.

The entire complex, including the temples, is bounded by a compound wall which is one of the most prominent part of the wat is about 2 kilometres (6,600 ft) length. The compound walls are decorated with typically Thai murals, based on the Indian epic Ramayana. In Thai language these murals are known to form the Ramakian, the Thai national epic, which was written during the reign of Rama I. The epic stories formed the basic information to draw the paintings during the reign of King Rama I (1782–1809). These paintings are refurbished regularly. The murals, in 178 scenes, starting with the north gate of the temple illustrates the complete epic story of Ramayana sequentially, in a clockwise direction covering the entire compound wall. The murals serve to emphasise human values of honesty, faith, and devotion.

There are twelve salas that were built by Rama I, around the temple. They house interesting artefacts of regions such as Cambodia and Java. One of these salas had an inscription of Ramkamhaeng, which was shifted, in 1924, to the National Library. During the reign of King Mongkut, the Phra Gandharara – small chapel on the southwest corner – and a tall belfry were new additions.

Early in the Bangkok period, the Emerald Buddha used to be taken out of its temple and paraded in the streets to relieve the city and countryside of various calamities (such as plague and cholera). However, this practice was discontinued during Rama IV’s reign as it was feared that the image could get damaged during the procession and also a practical line of thinking that Rama IV held „that diseases are caused by germs, not by evil spirits or the displeasure of the Buddha“. The image also marks the changing of the seasons in Thailand, with the king presiding over the seasonal ceremonies.

Like many other Buddha statues in Thailand, the Emerald Buddha is dressed in a seasonal costume. It is a significant ritual held at this temple. In this ritual, dress of the deity is changed three times a year to correspond to the seasons. In summer it is a pointed crown of gold and jewels, and a set of jewelled ornaments that adorns the image from the shoulders to the ankles. In winter, a meshed dressing gown or drapery made of gold beads, which covered from the neck down like a poncho is used. During the rainy months, a top-knot headdress studded with gold, enamel and sapphires; the gold attire in the rainy season is draped over the left shoulder of the deity, only with the right shoulder left bare while gold ornaments embellish the image up to the ankles. The astrological dates for the ritual ceremonies, at the changing of the seasons, followed are in the 1st Waning Moon of Lunar Months 4, 8 and 12 (around March, July and November). The costume change ritual is performed by the Thai king who is the highest master of ceremonies for all Buddhist rites. On each occasion, the king himself „cleans the image by wiping away any dust that has collected and changing the headdress of the image“. Then a king’s royal attendant climbs up and performs the elaborate ritual of changing garments of the image as the king is chanting prayers to the deity. On this occasion, the king sprinkles water over the monks and the faithful who have assembled to witness the unique ritual and seeks blessings of the deity for good fortune during the upcoming season. The two sets of clothing not in use at any given time are kept on display in the nearby Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins in the precincts of the Grand Palace. While Rama I initiated this ritual for the hot season and the rainy season, Rama III introduced the ritual for the winter season. The robes, which the image adorns, represents that of monks and King’s depending on the season, a clear indication of highlighting its symbolic role „as Buddha and the King“, which role is also enjoined on the Thai King who formally dresses the Emerald Buddha image.

A ceremony that is observed in the wat is the Chakri Day (begun on April 6, 1782), a national holiday to honour founding of the Chakri dynasty. On this day, the king attends the ceremony. The present king Rama IX, with his Queen, and entourage of the royal family, the Prime Minister, officials in the Ministry of Defence, and other government departments, first offer prayers at the Emerald Buddha temple. This is followed by visit to the pantheon to pay homage to the images of past Chakri rulers that are installed there.

The coronation ceremony, which marks the crowning of the king, is an important event of the Chakri dynasty. One such recent event took place when the present Rama IX was crowned the King. On this occasion, the King came to the Chapel Royal- the Wat Phra Keo – in a procession wearing a ‚Great Crown‘. After entering the chapel, the king made offerings of gold and silver flowers to the deity and also lighted candles. He also paid homage to the images of Buddha that represented the past kings of the dynasty. In the presence of assembled elite clergy of the kingdom, he took a formal vow of his religion and his steadfastness to ‚Defend the Faith‘.

The sacred temples in Thailand follow a dress code, which is strictly followed. Men must wear long pants and sleeved shirts and shoes; women must wear long skirts. Visitors who arrive dressed otherwise may rent appropriate clothing items at the entry area of the temple. It is compulsory to remove the shoes before entering the temple, as a sign of respect of the Buddha, as is the practice in all other temples in Thailand. While offering prayers before the Buddha image, the sitting posture should avoid any offensive stretching of feet towards the deity; the feet should be tucked in towards the back.

While the surrounding portico of the shrine is an example of Thai craftsmanship, the perimeter of the temple complex has 12 open pavilions. These were built during the reign of Rama I. There is plethora of monuments in the temple complex. These are:

The former residence of the King, the Grand Palace, adjoins the temple. The King makes use of this Grand Palace for ceremonial functions such as the Coronation Day. The King’s present residence is to the north of this Grand Palace and is known as the Chitlada Palace. The four structures surrounding the temple have history of their own. At the eastern end is the Borombhiman Hall (built in French architectural design), which was the residence of King Rama VI, now used as guest house for visiting foreign dignitaries. It has the dubious distinction of having been used as the operational headquarters and residence of General Chitpatima who attempted a coup, in 1981. The building to the west is the Amarindra hall, earlier a hall of Justice, now used for formal ceremonies. The Chakri Mahaprasat is the largest hall in the Grand Palace, built in 1882 by British architects, the architecture of which is fusion of Italian renaissance and Traditional Thai architecture. This style is called farang sai chada, (meaning: „Westerner wearing a Thai crown“) as each wing has a shrine (mandap) crowned by a spire. Ashes of the Chakri kings (five ancestors) are enshrined in the largest of these shrines, also known as the pantheons, that were rebuilt after a fire in 1903 during Rama IV’s reign. Ashes of the Chakri princess who could not become kings are enshrined in an adjoining hall. The throne room and the reception hall are on the first floor, while the ground floor houses a collection of weapons. The inner palace had the King’s harem (the practice was discontinued during King Rama VI’s time who decreed the one wife rule), which was guarded by well trained female guards. Another hall in the palace is the ‚Dusit hall‘ in Ratanokosin-style, which runs from east to west, which was initially an audience hall but now converted into a funerary hall for the Royal family. Royal family corpses are kept here for one year before they are cremated in a nearby field. There is also a garden which was laid during rama IV’s reign. The garden depicts a „Thai mountain-and-woods-fable“ mountain scenes where the coming of age ritual of shaving the topknot of the Prince is performed.

The temple grounds also depict three pagodas to its immediate north, which represent the changing centres of Buddhist influence. One such shrine to the west of the temple is the Phra Si Ratana Chedi, a 19th-century stupa built in Sri Lankan style enshrining ashes of the Buddha.

Rama I also built a library in Thai style, in the middle of the complex, known as the „Phra Mondop“. The library houses an elegantly carved Ayutthaya-style mother-of-pearl doors, bookcases with the Tripitaka (sacred Buddhist manuscripts), human-and dragon-headed nagas (snakes), and images of Chakri kings.

During the 19th century, the Royal Pantheon was built in Khmer style to the east of the temple, which is kept open for only one day in year, in the month of October to commemorate the founding of the Chakri dynasty.

The temple complex also contains a model of Angkor Wat (the most sacred of all Cambodian shrines). In 1860, King Mongkut ordered his generals to lead 2,000 men to dismantle Angkor Wat and take it to Bangkok. Modern scholars suggested that the king wanted to show that Siam was still in control of Cambodia, as France was seeking to colonise Cambodia at that time. However, the king’s order could not be fulfilled. A royal chronicle written by Lord Thiphakorawong (Kham Bunnag), then foreign minister, recorded that many Thai men fell ill after entering Cambodian wilderness. The chronicle also stated that forest-dwelling Khmer people ambushed the Thai army, killing many leading generals. King Mongkut then ordered the construction of the model within Wat Phra Kaew, instead of the real Angkor Wat that could not be brought to Bangkok. Mongkut died before he could see the model. Its construction was completed in the reign of his son, Chulalongkorn.

A hermit’s bronze image, which is believed to have healing powers, is installed in a sala on the western side of the temple. It is near the entry gate. It is a black stone statue, considered a patron of medicine, before which relatives of the sick and infirm pay respects and make offerings of joss sticks, fruit, flowers, and candles.

On the eastern side of the temple premises there are eight towers or prangs, each of a different colour. They were erected during the reign of Rama I and represent eight elements of Buddhism.

Statues of elephants, which symbolize independence and power, are seen all around the complex. As Thai kings fought wars mounted on elephants, it has become customary for parents to make their children circumambulate the elephant three times with the belief that it would bring them strength. The head of an elephant statue is also rubbed for good luck; this act of the people is reflected in the smoothness of the surface of elephant statues here.

A Wat Phra Kaew Inner Compound Structure

Thotsakhirithon (ทศคีรีธร), giant demon (Yaksha) guarding an exit to Grand Palace

Kinare – mythological creature, half bird, half man

Detail of a kinnara-statue

Garuda and Nagas, at the outside of the ubosot

Nok Tantima (นกตันติมา) or Tantima bird, guarding the Viharn Yod

Wat Phra Kaew from entrance

Phra Mondop (the library) and Phra Sri Rattana Chedi

Nāga at the entrance to Phra Mondop

Entrance to Phra Mondop

View of the Temple of Emerald Buddha and Golden Stupa

Royal Pantheon of Wat Phra Kaew

A row of prangs in Wat Phra Kaew


Blanka Modra

Blanka Modra (* 1946 in Prag) ist eine Tänzerin und Schauspielerin.

Blanka Modra machte eine klassische Ballett-Ausbildung in Prag. Von 1964 bis 1968 war sie Mitglied der Kompanie „Studio Ballett Prag“, mit dem sie weltweit auftrat. Von 1968 bis 1972 tanzte sie in der Prager Kompanie „Laterna Magika“. 1972 emigrierte sie nach Wien, wo sie seither lebt. Von 1972 bis 1984 war sie Primaballerina am Theater an der Wien, anschließend wechselte sie zum Burgtheater, wo sie als Choreographin und Schauspielerin arbeitete. Ab 1985 war sie Ensemblemitglied im Burgtheater.

Modra machte eine Theater- und Jazzausbildung in New York. Sie trat auch bei den Salzburger Festspielen auf, unter anderem im Jedermann, in Mozarts Zauberflöte und in Tschaikowskys Eugen Onegin, und arbeitete mit vielen renommierten Regisseuren zusammen. Sie wirkte auch in Filmen mit, als Schauspieler und als Choreographin. Außerdem unterrichtete sie an der Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst Wien.

Blanka Modra ist die Tochter des verstorbenen tschechoslowakischen Eishockeytorwarts Bohumil Modrý. Auf der Basis von Gesprächen mit ihr und von ihr bereitgestellten Dokumenten schrieb der österreichische Schriftsteller Josef Haslinger eine romanhafte Biografie ihres Vaters, der in den 1950er Jahren in der Tschechoslowakei zu Zwangsarbeit verurteilt wurde und an den Folgen starb. Das Buch mit dem Titel Jáchymov erschien im August 2011.

Arrane Ashoonagh Dy Vannin

Arrane Ashoonagh Vannin (engelsk: O Land of our Birth) er Mans nasjonalsang. Den er skrevet og komponert av William Henry Gill (1839–1923) og oversettelsen til mansk-gælisk er gjort av John J. Kneen (1873–1939). Nasjonalsangen inneholder åtte vers, men det er bare den første og siste som pleier å bli sunget. Tynwald besluttet den 22. januar 2002 at dette skulle være Mans offisielle nasjonalsang sammen med den britiske God Save the Queen.

Sangen Ellan Vannin, skrevet av Eliza Craven Green i 1854 og senere satt musikk til av enten J. Townsend eller F. H. Townend (motstridende kilder), hadde opp til denne tiden blitt sett på som en likeverdig uoffisiell nasjonalsang.

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Акимова, Александра Фёдоровна

5 мая 1922(1922-05-05)

дер. Петрушино, Скопинский уезд, Рязанская губерния, РСФСР

29 декабря 2012(2012-12-29) (90 лет)

Москва, Россия

Россия Россия



46-й гвардейский ночной бомбардировочный авиационный полк

Великая Отечественная война

преподаватель МАИ, кандидат исторических наук, доцент

Алекса́ндра Фёдоровна Аки́мова (5 мая 1922, д. Петрушино, Рязанская губерния — 29 декабря 2012, Москва) — советский военный лётчик, штурман 46-го гвардейского ночного бомбардировочного авиационного полка, капитан в отставке, Герой Российской Федерации (1994).

Родилась 5 мая 1922 года в деревне Петрушино Скопинского уезда Рязанской губернии (ныне Скопинского района Рязанской области).

В 1940 году поступила на исторический факультет Московского педагогического института. В то же время посещала курсы медсестёр.

С началом войны пыталась попасть в Красную Армию, однако была отправлена строить оборонительные укрепления под Можайском. С началом занятий Акимова вернулась в институт, однако не бросала идею попасть в Красную Армию.

8 октября 1941 года Сталин издал указ НКО СССР № 0099 о сформировании женских авиационных полков. Акимова была мобилизована на фронт. В городе Энгельс, где базировался её 588-й легкобомбардировочный женский авиационный полк, Александра Фёдоровна обучилась профессии авиационного техника.

В феврале 1943 года полк за свои заслуги получил звание 46-го гвардейского ночного бомбардировочного авиаполка.

В марте 1943 года Акимову назначили штурманом. С апреля 1943 года по май 1945 года Акимова совершила 715 боевых вылетов.

В апреле 1945 года была представлена к званию Героя Советского Союза, представление было поддержано генерал-полковником Вершининым и Маршалом Советского Союза Рокоссовским, однако затерялось в Москве.

После демобилизации из армии Акимова окончила Московский педагогический институт, а затем и аспирантуру там, стала кандидатом исторических наук. С 1952 года преподавала в Московском авиационном институте. В 1992 году вышла на пенсию.

31 декабря 1994 года Акимовой Александре Фёдоровне было присвоено звание Героя Российской Федерации за мужество и героизм, проявленные в борьбе с немецко-фашистскими захватчиками в Великой Отечественной войне 1941—1945 годов.

Александра Фёдоровна являлась активным участником ветеранского движения.

Умерла 29 декабря 2012 года. Похоронена на Троекуровском кладбище в Москве.

В декабре 2015 года на фасаде дома № 8 по Волоколамскому шоссе, где Александра Акимова жила с 1956 по 1966 год, была установлена мемориальная доска с бронзовым бюстом (скульптор Иван Балашов и архитектор Пётр Козлов).

 . Сайт «Герои Страны».

Heysel Stadium disaster

The Heysel Stadium disaster (pronounced: [ˈɦɛizəl]; Dutch: Heizeldrama; French: Drame du Heysel) occurred on 29 May 1985 when escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall in the Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium, before the start of the 1985 European Cup Final between Juventus of Italy and Liverpool of England. 39 people—mostly Italians and Juventus fans—were killed and 600 were injured in the confrontation.

Approximately an hour before the Juventus-Liverpool final was due to kick off, Liverpool supporters charged at Juventus fans and breached a fence that was separating them from a „neutral area“. This came after a period of hostility between the two sets of fans which saw missiles thrown from both teams‘ supporters. The instigators of violence are still unknown, with varying accounts. Juventus fans ran back on the terraces and away from the threat into a concrete retaining wall. Fans already standing near the wall were crushed; eventually the wall collapsed. Many people climbed over to safety, but many others died or were badly injured. The game was played despite the disaster, with Juventus winning 1–0.

The tragedy resulted in all English football clubs being placed under an indefinite ban by UEFA from all European competitions (lifted in 1990–91), with Liverpool being excluded for an additional three years, later reduced to one, and fourteen Liverpool fans found guilty of manslaughter and each sentenced to three years‘ imprisonment. The disaster was later described as „the darkest hour in the history of the UEFA competitions“.

In May 1985, Liverpool were the defending European Champions‘ Cup winners, having won the competition after defeating Roma in the penalty shootout in the final of the previous season. Again they would face Italian opposition, Juventus, who had won, unbeaten, the 1983–84 Cup Winners‘ Cup. Juventus had a team comprising many of Italy’s 1982 FIFA World Cup winning team–who played for Juventus for many years–and their playmaker Michel Platini was considered the best footballer in Europe, being named Footballer of The Year by France Football magazine for the second year in a row in December 1984. Both teams were placed in the two first positions in the UEFA club ranking at the end of the last season and were regarded by the specialised press as the best two sides in the continent at the time. Both teams had contested the 1984 European Super Cup five months before, finishing with victory for the Italian side by 2–0.

Despite its status as Belgium’s national stadium, Heysel was in a poor state of repair by the time of the 1985 European Final. The 55-year-old stadium had not been sufficiently maintained for several years, and large parts of the stadium were literally crumbling. For example, the outer wall had been made of cinder block, and fans who did not have tickets were seen kicking holes in it to get in. Liverpool players and fans later said that they were shocked at Heysel’s abject condition, despite reports from Arsenal fans that the ground was a „dump“ when Arsenal had played there a few years earlier. They were also surprised that Heysel was chosen despite its poor condition, especially since Barcelona’s Camp Nou and Bernabéu in Madrid were both available. Juventus president Giampiero Boniperti and Liverpool CEO Peter Robinson urged UEFA to choose another venue, claiming that Heysel was not in any condition to host a European Final, especially a European Final involving two of the largest and most powerful clubs in Europe. However, UEFA refused to consider a move.

The stadium was crammed with 58,000–60,000 supporters, with more than 25,000 for each team. The two ends behind the goals comprised all-standing terraces, each end split into three zones. The Juventus end was O, N and M and the Liverpool end was X, Y and Z as deemed by the Belgian court after the disaster. However, the tickets for the Z section were reserved for neutral Belgian fans in addition to the rest of the stadium. This meant the Juventus fans had more sections than the Liverpool fans with the Z section occupied by neutrals which is thought to have heightened prematch tensions. The idea of the large neutral area was opposed by both Liverpool and Juventus, as it would provide an opportunity for fans of both clubs to obtain tickets from agencies or from ticket touts outside the ground and thus create a dangerous mix of fans.

At the time Brussels, like the rest of Belgium, already had a large Italian community, and many expatriate Juventus fans bought the section Z tickets. Added to this, many tickets were bought up and sold by travel agents, mainly to Juventus fans. A small percentage of the tickets ended up in the hands of Liverpool fans.

At approximately 7 p.m. local time, an hour before kick-off, the trouble started. The Liverpool and Juventus supporters in sections X and Z stood merely yards apart. The boundary between the two was marked by temporary chain link fencing and a central thinly policed no-man’s land. Fans began to throw stones across the divide, which they were able to pick up from the crumbling terraces beneath them.

As kick-off approached, the throwing became more intense. Several groups of Liverpool fans broke through the boundary between section X and Z, overpowered the police, and charged at the Juventus fans. The fans began to flee toward the perimeter wall of section Z. The wall could not withstand the force of the fleeing Juventus supporters and a lower portion collapsed.

Contrary to reports at the time, and what is still assumed by many, the collapse of the wall did not cause the 39 deaths. Instead, the collapse relieved pressure and allowed fans to escape. Most died of suffocation after tripping or being crushed against the wall before the collapse. A further 600 fans were also injured. Bodies were carried out from the stadium on sections of iron fencing and laid outside, covered with giant football flags. As police and medical helicopters flew in, the down-draught blew away the modest coverings.

In retaliation for the events in section Z, many Juventus fans then rioted at their end of the stadium. They advanced down the stadium running track to help other Juventus supporters, but police intervention stopped the advance. A large group of Juventus fans fought the police with rocks, bottles and stones for two hours. One Juventus fan was also seen firing a starting gun at Belgian police.

Despite the scale of the disaster, UEFA officials, Belgian Prime Minister Wilfried Martens, Brussels Mayor Hervé Brouhon, and the city’s police force felt that abandoning the match would have risked inciting further trouble and violence, and the match eventually kicked off after the captains of both sides spoke to the crowd and appealed for calm.

Juventus won the match 1–0 thanks to a penalty scored by Michel Platini, awarded by Swiss referee Daina for a foul against Zbigniew Boniek.

At the end of the game the trophy was given in front of the stadium’s Honor Stand by the confederation president Jacques Georges to Juventus captain Gaetano Scirea. Due to collective hysteria generated by the massive invasion of the pitch by journalists and fans at the end of the match, and the chants of fans of both teams in the stands, some Italian club players celebrated the title in the middle of the pitch among them and in front of their fans in the M section, while some Liverpool players applauded their fans between the X and Z sections, the stadium’s section affected.

Initially, the blame for the incident was laid on the fans of Liverpool FC. On 30 May official UEFA observer Gunter Schneider said, „Only the English fans were responsible. Of that there is no doubt.“ UEFA, the organiser of the event, the owners of Heysel Stadium and the Belgian police were investigated for culpability. After an 18-month investigation, the dossier of top Belgian judge Marina Coppieters was finally published. It concluded that blame should not rest solely with the English fans, and that some culpability lay with the police and authorities. Several top officials were incriminated by some of the dossier’s findings, including police captain Johan Mahieu, who had been in charge of security on 29 May 1985 and was subsequently charged with manslaughter.

The British police undertook a thorough investigation to bring to justice the perpetrators. Some 17 minutes of film and many still photographs were examined. TV Eye produced an hour-long programme featuring the footage and the British press also published the photographs.

A total of 34 people were arrested and questioned with 26 Liverpool fans being charged with manslaughter – the only extraditable offence applicable to events at Heysel. An extradition hearing in London in February–March 1987 ruled all 26 were to be extradited to stand trial in Belgium for the death of Juventus fan Mario Ronchi. In September 1987 they were extradited and formally charged with manslaughter applying to all 39 deaths and further charges of assault. Initially, all were held at a Belgian prison but over the subsequent months judges permitted their release as the start of the trial became ever more delayed.

The trial eventually got underway in October 1988, with three Belgians also standing trial for their role in the disaster: Albert Roosens, the head of the Belgian Football Association, for allowing tickets for the Liverpool section of the stadium to be sold to Juventus fans; and two police chiefs – Michel Kensier and Johann Mahieu – who were in charge of policing at the stadium that night. Two of the 26 Liverpool fans were in custody in Britain at the time and stood trial later. In April 1989, 14 fans were convicted and given three-year sentences, that were half suspended for five years, allowing them to return to the UK. After Belgian prosecutors appealed the sentences as too lenient, an appeal took place in Spring 1990 that increased the sentences of 11 fans (to five or four years), with two having their sentences upheld and one being acquitted.[citation needed]

Pressure mounted to ban English clubs from European competition. On 31 May 1985, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher asked the FA to withdraw English clubs from European competition before they were banned, but two days later, UEFA banned English clubs for „an indeterminate period of time“. On 6 June, FIFA extended this ban to all worldwide matches, but this was modified a week later to allow friendly matches outside of Europe to take place. In December 1985 FIFA announced that English clubs were also free to play friendly games in Europe, though the Belgian government banned any English clubs playing in their country.

Though the English national team was not subjected to any bans, English club sides were banned indefinitely from European club competitions, with Liverpool being provisionally subject to a further three years suspension as well. In April 1990, following years of campaigning from the English football authorities, UEFA confirmed the reintroduction of English clubs (with the exception of Liverpool) into its competitions from the 1990–91 season onward; in April 1991 UEFA’s Executive Committee voted to allow Liverpool back into European competition from the 1991–92 season onward, a year later than their compatriots, but two years earlier than initially foreseen. In the end, all English clubs served a five-year-ban, while Liverpool were excluded for six years.

According to former Liverpool striker Ian Rush, the institutional relationships between both clubs and their fans improved during his career in Italy.

The following clubs were denied entry to European competitions during this period:


The number of places available to English clubs in the UEFA Cup would however have been reduced had English teams been eliminated early in the competition. By the time of the readmittance of all English clubs except Liverpool in 1990–91, England was only granted one UEFA Cup entrant (awarded to the league runners-up); prior to the ban, they had had four entry slots, a number not awarded to England again until the 1994–95 UEFA Cup. Welsh clubs playing in the English league system, who could qualify for the Cup Winners‘ Cup through the Welsh Cup, were unaffected by the ban.

In the meantime, many other clubs missed out on a place in the UEFA Cup due to the return of English clubs to European competitions only being gradual.

Liverpool’s additional year of exclusion from Europe meant that there was no English representation in the 1990-91 European Cup, as they were defending league champions that season. Football League Cup winners Nottingham Forest also missed out on UEFA Cup places in 1990-91, along with Tottenham Hotspur, Arsenal and Chelsea.

The teams who missed out on the 1991-92 UEFA Cup for the same reason were Sheffield Wednesday, Crystal Palace, Leeds United and Manchester City.

The excluded teams in 1992-93 were Arsenal and Manchester City.

In 1993-94, the excluded teams were Blackburn Rovers and Queens Park Rangers.

The final season of partial exclusion was 1994-95, when Leeds United missed out.

After Heysel, English clubs began to impose stricter rules intended to make it easier to prevent troublemakers from attending domestic games, with legal provision to exclude troublemakers for three months introduced in 1986, and the Football (Offences) Act introduced in 1991.

Serious progress on legal banning orders preventing foreign travel to matches was arguably not made until the violence involving England fans (allegedly mainly involving neo-Nazi groups, such as Combat 18) at a match against Ireland on 18 February 1995 and violent scenes at the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Rioting at UEFA Euro 2000 saw introduction of new legislation and wider use of police powers – by 2004, 2,000 banning orders were in place, compared to fewer than 100 before Euro 2000.

The main reforms to English stadiums came after the Taylor Report into the Hillsborough disaster in which 96 people died in 1989. All-seater stadiums became a requirement for clubs in the top two divisions while pitchside fencing was removed and closed-circuit cameras have been installed. Fans who misbehave can have their tickets revoked and be legally barred from attending games at any English stadium.

The Heysel Stadium itself continued to be used for hosting athletics for almost a decade, but no further football matches took place in the old stadium. In 1994, the stadium was almost completely rebuilt as the King Baudouin Stadium. On 28 August 1995 the new stadium welcomed the return of football to Heysel in the form of a friendly match between Belgium and Germany. It then hosted a major European final on 8 May 1996 when Paris Saint-Germain defeated Rapid Vienna 1–0 to win the Cup Winners‘ Cup.

In 1985, a memorial was presented to the victims at the Juventus headquarters in Piazza Crimea, Turin. The monument includes an epitaph written by Torinese journalist Giovanni Arpino. Since 2001 it has been situated in front of the current club’s headquarter in Corso Galileo Ferraris.

In 1986 the band Revolting Cocks, fronted by Al Jourgensen of Ministry, released a song by the name of „38“, in commemoration to the deaths of this tragic event on the album Big Sexy Land.[citation needed]

A memorial service for those killed in the disaster was held before Liverpool’s match with Arsenal at Anfield on 18 August 1985, their first fixture after the disaster. However, according to The Sydney Morning Herald, it was „drowned out“ by chanting.

During Euro 2000, members of the Italian team left flowers on the site, in honour of the victims.

On 29 May 2005, a £140,000 sculpture was unveiled at the new Heysel stadium, to commemorate the disaster. The monument is a sundial designed by French artist Patrick Rimoux and includes Italian and Belgian stone and the poem Funeral Blues by Englishman W. H. Auden to symbolise the sorrow of the three countries. Thirty-nine lights shine, one for each who died that night.

Juventus and Liverpool were drawn together in the quarter-finals of the 2005 Champions League, their first meeting since Heysel. Before the first leg at Anfield, Liverpool fans held up placards to form a banner saying „amicizia“ („friendship“ in Italian). Many of the Juventus fans applauded the gesture, although a significant number chose to turn their backs on it. In the return leg in Turin, Juventus fans displayed banners reading Easy to speak, difficult to pardon: murders and 15-4-89. Sheffield. God exists, the latter a reference to the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 Liverpool fans were killed in a crush. A number of Liverpool fans were attacked in the city by Juventus ultras.

British composer Michael Nyman wrote a piece called „Memorial“ which was originally part of a larger work of the same name written in 1985 in memory of the Juventus fans who died at Heysel Stadium.

On Wednesday 26 May 2010, a permanent plaque was unveiled on the Centenary Stand at Anfield to honour the Juventus fans who died 25 years earlier. This plaque is one of two permanent memorials to be found at Anfield, along with one for the 96 fans killed in the Hillsborough disaster in 1989.

In May 2012, a Heysel Memorial was unveiled in the J-Museum at Turin. There is also a tribute to the disaster’s victims in the club’s Walk of Fame in front of the Juventus Stadium. Two years later Juventus‘ officials announced a memorial in the Continassa headquarter.

In February 2014, an exhibition in Turin was dedicated both to the Heysel tragedy and Superga air disaster. The name of the exhibition was „Settanta angeli in un unico cielo – Superga e Heysel tragedie sorelle“ (70 angels in the one same heaven – Superga and Heysel sister tragedies) and gathered material from 4 May 1949 and 29 May 1985.

In May 2015, during a Serie A match between Juventus and Napoli at Turin, Juventus fans held up placards to form a banner saying „+39 Rispetto“ („respect +39“ in Italian) including the names of the victims of the disaster.

On 12 November 2015 Italian Football Federation (FIGC), Juventus‘ representatives led by Mariella Scirea and J-Museum president Paolo Garimberti and members of the Italian victims association held a ceremony in front of the Heysel monument in King Baudouin Stadium for the 30th anniversary of the event. The following day, FIGC president Carlo Tavecchio announced the retirement of Squadra Azzurra‘s number 39 shirt prior to the friendly match between Italy and Belgium.

The 39 people killed were 32 Italians (including two minors), four Belgians, two French fans and one from Northern Ireland.


Vincent O’Brien

Michael Vincent O’Brien (9 April 1917 – 1 June 2009) was an Irish race horse trainer from Churchtown, County Cork, Ireland. In 2003 he was voted the greatest influence in horse racing history in a worldwide poll hosted by the Racing Post. In earlier Racing Post polls he was voted the best ever trainer of national hunt and of flat racehorses. He trained six horses to win the Epsom Derby, was twice British champion trainer, won three Grand Nationals in succession and trained the only British Triple Crown winner since the Second World War. Aidan O’Brien (no relation) took over the Ballydoyle stables after his retirement.

In his early days Vincent O’Brien was a trainer of steeplechasers and hurdlers, and won the Grand National at Liverpool three times in succession, with three different horses – Early Mist in 1953, Royal Tan in 1954, and Quare Times in 1955. The greatest steeplechaser he trained was Cottage Rake, which won the Cheltenham Gold Cup three times in succession (1948–1950). He later trained Knock Hard to also win the Cheltenham Gold Cup (1953). He also won the Champion Hurdle three years in succession with Hatton’s Grace (1949–1951).

Soon after his third Grand National triumph, he turned his attention to flat racing, and set up his stables at Ballydoyle, near Cashel, County Tipperary. Ballymoss, owned by American businessman John McShain, was O’Brien’s first top-flight flat racing horse. This colt won the Irish Derby Stakes and England’s St. Leger Stakes in 1957 and France’s Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe in 1958, en route to earning European Horse of the Year honours. For another American, Alice du Pont Mills, he trained the filly Glad Rags who in 1966 gave him his only win in the 1,000 Guineas Stakes. O’Brien’s first Epsom Derby winner was Larkspur in 1962. His other Derby winners were Sir Ivor (1968), Nijinsky (1970), Roberto (1972), The Minstrel (1977) and finally Golden Fleece (1982). O’Brien also trained the brilliant dual Prix de L’Arc de Triomphe winner, Alleged, which triumphed in 1977 and 1978.

During the 1970s, he and owner Robert Sangster, along with O’Brien’s son-in-law, John Magnier, established what became known as the Coolmore syndicate, which became a highly successful horse-racing and breeding operation, centred on Coolmore Stud in County Tipperary, and later incorporating stud farms in Kentucky and Australia. The combination of Vincent O’Brien’s incredible gift for picking world class horses and John Magnier’s business mind propelled Coolmore Stud to the top of the racing world, boasting greater assets than any other racing stud in Europe, the Middle East, or America. The key to the success was through use of the bloodline of a Canadian-bred horse named Northern Dancer, who had won a Kentucky Derby. One son of Northern Dancer was the British Triple Crown winner, Nijinsky, probably the best horse O’Brien ever trained. He was ridden to victory at Epsom by Lester Piggott, who was associated with the Ballydoyle stable during the most successful years of the late sixties and seventies.

Other outstanding flat racehorses trained by Vincent O’Brien include: Gladness, Valoris, Pieces of Eight, Long Look, Boucher, Thatch, Lisadell, Abergwaun, Home Guard, Apalachee, Artaius, Try My Best, Cloonlara, Godswalk, Be My Guest, Marinsky, Lady Capulet, Solinus, Jaazeiro, Thatching, Monterverdi, Solford, Bluebird, Lomond, Godetia, Storm Bird, Kings Lake, Caerleon, El Prado, Woodstream, Capriciossa, Prince of Birds, Dark Lomond and College Chapel. He trained Sadler’s Wells (by Northern Dancer) to win the Beresford Stakes, Irish 2000 Guineas, Eclipse Stakes and Irish Champion Stakes. Sadlers Wells went on to become the greatest ever European sire and an outstanding ’sire of sires‘ including Gallileo, Montjeu and El Prado.

Vincent O’Brien retired from training in 1994, four years after winning the 1990 Breeders‘ Cup Mile at Belmont Park in New York with Royal Academy.

Aidan O’Brien was then employed by Coolmore to take over the training responsibilities of Vincent O’Brien. Unlike Vincent, who was involved in every stage of the horses‘ selecting, training and breeding, Aidan’s role involves training whatever horses have been bought or bred for him by Coolmore. This narrow focus has allowed Aidan to produce a great number of winners from Vincent’s first rate bloodline of horses, maintaining Coolmore’s status as the biggest bloodstock company in the world.

Vincent O’Brien was voted the greatest national hunt trainer of the 20th century, and was then voted the greatest flat trainer of the 20th century. In the vote for the greatest figure in the history of horseracing hosted by the Racing Post newspaper, Vincent O’Brien came first with 28% of the total vote, with his long-time stable jockey Lester Piggott placed second out of a pool of 100 contenders selected by a panel of racing experts. He was awarded the honorary degrees of Doctor of Laws (LLD) honoris causa by the National University of Ireland, and Doctor of Science (DSc) honoris causa by the University of Ulster.

Vincent O’Brien married Jacqueline Wittenoom, from Perth, Australia, in 1951 and had five children, daughters Elizabeth (widow of Kevin McClory), Susan (wife of John Magnier) and Jane (wife of Philip Myerscough); and sons Charles and David who followed in their father’s footsteps as trainers, as did Vincent’s grandson David Myerscough. Grandsons J P Magnier and M V Magnier have ridden with success as amateur jockeys. Charles was married to Anne Heffernan and had two children (Michael Vincent O’Brien Jr. and Katherine Margaret O’Brien). The marriage was dissolved and he subsequently married Tammy Twomey. They had two daughters (Emily Jillian O’Brien and Penny Jacqueline O’Brien). Altogether Vincent and Jacqueline had 5 children and 19 grandchildren.

O’Brien’s older son, David won the Epsom Derby in 1984 with Secreto, beating his father’s horse, El Gran Senor, by a short head. David, who also won the Irish and French Derbies in 1982 with Assert, is the youngest ever trainer to win an Epsom Derby, an Irish Derby, or a French Derby. However, in a decision that shocked the racing world, David suddenly retired from horse racing in 1988 following the birth of his third son, Charles.

O’Brien and his wife latterly spent half of each year in her home town of Perth, Western Australia and the remainder of the year in Ireland. He died at his Irish home in Straffan, County Kildare on 1 June 2009, aged 92.

Great Britain



United States

Kizen Sasaki

Kizen Sasaki (佐々木喜善 Sasaki Kizen?), also sometimes Sun-Hee Sasaki and Kyōseki Sasaki (5 October 1886 – 29 September 1933), was a Japanese folklorist, sometimes known as the Japanese Grimm.

He was the son of a wealthy farming family from Tōno, Iwate. He attended Shiritsu Tetsugakukan (now Toyo University) and then graduated with a degree in literature from Waseda University in 1905. In 1908, he became acquainted with Kunio Yanagita, and Sasaki began to collaborate with Yanagita on collecting the oral traditions and tales of Iwate Prefecture. In his later years, he became friends with the poet Kenji Miyazawa with whom he shared his discoveries. Sasaki suffered from respiratory problems and died at the age of 47.

Professionally, Sasaki published a number of books of collected folktales and customs.


BoltBus is an intercity bus common carrier that operates low cost, non-stop and limited-stop, premium level routes in the northeast and western United States and British Columbia, Canada. In the northeast, BoltBus provides service from New York City and Newark to other cities along the Interstate 95 corridor. BoltBus is owned by Greyhound Lines and routes in the northeast are operated in partnership with Peter Pan Bus Lines. On the west coast, BoltBus service is offered in California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, Canada. Routes on the West Coast are owned and operated by Greyhound without a partner.

While BoltBus is owned by Greyhound Lines and uses the company’s operating authority, it is run as a distinct business.

BoltBus competes with other low cost carriers such as Megabus and Chinatown bus carriers.

The BoltBus network in the northeast radiates from New York City. Buses depart from three street stops in Manhattan and there are different departure points for different lines. Service is currently available between New York City and Boston’s South Station Bus Terminal, Washington, D.C.’s Union Station, Baltimore’s Penn Station, the Greenbelt Metro station in Greenbelt, Maryland and Philadelphia from both the 30th Street Station in Center City and the Cherry Hill Mall in the suburb of Cherry Hill, New Jersey.

On March 24, 2011, BoltBus expanded its service into Newark. It began providing service from Newark’s Penn Station to Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.’s Union Station.

On June 23, 2011, BoltBus began providing service from Newark Penn Station to Philadelphia, stopping at John F. Kennedy Blvd and N. 30th St. across the street from the west entrance of the 30th Street Station, and to Boston’s South Station. Schedules on this route originate and terminate in Boston and Philadelphia with an intermediary stop in Newark.

Beginning August 1, 2012, the main New York stop was moved from West 34th Street and 8th Avenue to West 33rd Street between 11th and 12th Ave., across from the Javits Convention Center, and the newly opened 34th Street – Hudson Yards subway station.

On May 17, 2012, BoltBus expanded to the Pacific Northwest, offering service between Seattle and Portland. Service expanded to Vancouver, British Columbia and Bellingham on May 31, 2012 and again on October 3, 2013 with limited service (Thursday through Monday only) to Albany and Eugene.

BoltBus expanded into California on October 31, 2013 offering service between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area. The service originally operated between Los Angeles Union Station, San Jose’s Diridon Station and the West Oakland BART Station. A stop at San Francisco’s Transbay Terminal was added to the route on December 12, 2013, followed by a stop in Hollywood (near the Hollywood/Vine Metro Rail station) on January 8, 2015.

A second route between Los Angeles’s Union Station and San Diego was added on November 14, 2013, but was discontinued in January 2014 due to low ridership.

BoltBus service was expanded outside of California on December 12, 2013 with a route between Los Angeles Union Station and Las Vegas with a stop in Barstow. When the service first started buses served the Greyhound station at the Plaza Hotel & Casino, but in 2014 the route was modified to serve curbside stops in Downtown Las Vegas (near the Bonneville Transit Center) and along the Las Vegas Strip (near the High Roller Ferris wheel at The Linq).

Unlike parent Greyhound, all tickets sold on BoltBus are for reserved seating and buses are not oversold. On each trip, at least one ticket is sold for $1, with most pre-booked tickets priced in the $10–$20 range, via the yield management model. BoltBus sells the $1 tickets at random within the first few seats sold. The $1 fare is the basis for its slogan “Bolt for a Buck”. Since buses don’t operate out of traditional stations with ticket windows, passengers are encouraged to purchase tickets either online or on the phone before heading to the bus stop, but drivers will also accept cash from „walk-up“ passengers, if space is available (walk-up tickets typically cost 30% more than online fares). When ticketed, passengers are assigned to a boarding group (S, A, B & C). Passengers who purchased their tickets earlier get a better boarding group assignment, allowing them to board the bus and choose their seats earlier. Passengers who are members of the Bolt Rewards program are always assigned to the A boarding group. Passengers who have special needs are assigned to the S boarding group and are allowed to pre-board before other passengers.

BoltBus routes use Prevost X3-45 and MCI D4505 coaches. All motorcoaches are equipped with wireless internet access and leather seats that have armrests, footrests, seat belts, cup holders and most seats have a pair of 120-volt power outlets. The motorcoaches used on BoltBus have 5 fewer seats than the industry standard, giving passengers additional legroom and eliminating the middle seat from the last row.

Rose hip seed oil

Rose hip seed oil is a pressed seed oil, extracted from the seeds of a wild rose bush (Rosa moschata or Rosa rubiginosa) in the southern Andes. Rosehip seed oil can also be extracted from Rosa canina, which grows in many regions of the world including South Africa and Europe.

The oil contains provitamin A (mostly beta-Carotene). It has been wrongly said to contain retinol (vitamin A) which is a vitamin solely made by animals from provitamin A. It does however contain levels (up to .357 ml/L) of tretinoin or all-trans retinoic acid, a vitamin A acid that retinol converts to.

Similarly, while the fruit is rich in vitamin C, the oil does not contain any, as it is a water-soluble vitamin.

Rose hip seed oil is high in the essential fatty acids: linoleic acid or omega-6, and linolenic acid or omega-3.

It is commonly used in skin care products. It is commonly used for a variety of skin conditions, including dermatitis, and eczema, for mature and sun burnt skin as well as brittle nails and wrinkles. Rose hip oil is also frequently used to heal scarring and diminish photo-aging.

It quickly absorbs into the skin, replenishing moisture and creating a protective barrier on the skin to help prevent dehydration.